Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Blood Cancer is also known as hematological cancer that begins in blood-forming tissues in our body, such as the bone marrow, or in the cells of our immune system.
Types of blood cancer are leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Leukemia is a cancer of the blood or the bone marrow. Lymphoma is a blood cancer that develops in the white blood cell that helps the body fight infection.
Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that affects the plasma cells (a type of white blood cells or immune cells). The major symptoms of multiple myeloma: bone disease, anemia, kidney failure, increased risk of infection, and high levels of calcium.
MULTIPLE MYELOMA AND KIDNEY FAILURE: The abnormal proteins that are made by the plasma cells in patients with multiple myeloma float around in the blood stream. When this blood passes through the filters of the kidneys, forms a huge protein compound which obstructs the filters. The tubules inside the kidneys are just like pipes which carries water, when they get blocked, fluid flow is obstructed. These blockages and the toxic effects of these filtered proteins lead to kidney damage.
The JASN (Journal of the American Society of Nephrology) reports “Although multiple myeloma affects only 1% of all cancers, myeloma-related ESRD accounted for 58% of all malignancy-related cases between 1997 and 2001”
TREATMENT: The treatment for the kidney disease associated with multiple myeloma depends upon treating the myeloma itself.
In addition to chemotherapy to treat the multiple myeloma, there are a few other things that can help patients with myeloma kidney. Keeping hydrated is very important, because being dehydrated can lead to more cast formation and also reduce the abnormal level of protein in blood. Therefore, drinking 2-3L of water a day is recommended. Avoiding pain killers (like ibuprofen) and diuretics (like furosemide) are important because these medications cause more cast formation. Treating high blood levels of calcium is important so that the high calcium levels do not filter through the kidney and make cast formation worse. Finally, patients with multiple myeloma and especially those with myeloma kidney should not get IV contrast.
PREVENTION: The risk of multiple myeloma can be reduced slightly by maintaining a normal body weight. “An ounce of prevention is always greater than pounds of cure”
Source: Wikipedia, PUBMED, JASN and National Kidney Foundation.